Monday, May 25, 2020
Poverty is one of the biggest problems in the world today and it just keeps growing. Poverty is when you have either no money or you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have enough money to support yourself or your family. Poverty is one of the biggest issues in the world if not the biggest. Absolute poverty is when you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have clothes, food, shelter, health, and occupation. In everyplace in the world there is somebody in poverty. According to Anup Shah Ã¢â¬Å"Almost half the world over 3 billion people live on less than $2.50 a dayÃ¢â¬ . I think that poverty will one day be fixed but it will probably take a long time. Poverty is important because it is all over the world and some people are in poverty because of their countryÃ¢â¬â¢s leader. Poverty has been around since theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Poverty impacts other countries that are near a country in poverty because poverty spreads overtime to other places. Poverty affects a lot of people and places all over the world and that is why it is such a big issue. So what can we do to help put an end to the problem known as poverty? Well we could fund organizations giving care packages or supplies like books, food, clothing, and shelters. If natural disasters are what caused that nations poverty to rise we could get other countries to help rebuild the broken structures. If we ignore poverty though it will just grow and grow until one day we can never control it and the world will be consumed by poverty. Nations need our help to end poverty and we may do it eventually. It would take a really long time though to eliminate poverty all together but it will one day be eliminated. If I had to think of a way to end poverty is try to make a fundraiser or get some people to donate to someone in poverty. I think that if people understood what poverty does to people they would do all they could to help people in poverty. Maybe it can spread across the country and we can work together as a country to fix this issue. What will you do to try and stop poverty from spreading? So poverty will and always will be this worldÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest problem unless we find a way to stop it from growing out of our control. Somebody needs to step up and stop poverty from growing. So will that person be you thatShow MoreRelatedThe City Of Vancouver Is World Renowned For Being A Beautiful1740 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe City of Vancouver is world renowned for being a beautiful yet expensive city for people to work and live in. Despite ranking as the third least affordable housing market in the world, Vancouver is home to CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s poorest neighbourhood, the Downtown Eastside (DTES). Due to the high costs of living, the city of Vancouver has a large amount of poverty and homelessness. 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However, nationwide, even right outside the basin, homelessness is a growing epidemic across the country. There are many ways one can become homeless; for the most part poverty. There are also different concentrations of homeless in different types of terrain, such as urban or suburban areas. Last, there is the ever- growing homeless population, and how much money it costs us for others to live in poverty. These are the questions we ask ourselvesRead More Homelessness in america Essay1369 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshave to face the horrible life of poverty and homelessness. However, nationwide, even right outside the basin, homelessness is a growing epidemic across the country. There are many ways one can become homeless; for the most part poverty. There are also different concentrations of homeless i n different types of terrain, such as urban or suburban areas. Last, there is the ever- growing homeless population, and how much money it costs us for others to live in poverty. These are the questions we ask ourselvesRead MoreCauses And Effects Of The Opiate Epidemic In Dreamland By Sam Quinones1233 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCauses and Effects of the Opiate Epidemic The novel, Dreamland by Sam Quinones, goes into depth about the Opiate Epidemic in America. Quinones really focuses on a town called Portsmouth located near the Ohio River. This is a town that at one point in time was booming, until the epidemic reached Portsmouth and took over the town and surrounding areas. The epidemic is not only in Portsmouth, but around the world. The problems have impacted the care of patients when dealing with pain medication and
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 916 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/03/22 Category Health Essay Level High school Tags: Drug Abuse Essay Did you like this example? Abstract Why do people want to get high? Drug addiction is a major problem in many countries for a long time already. There are different factors that lead a person to use drugs. Drugs have been present in all cultures in every epoch. Nowadays, there are more people consuming, the quantity had increase and it is easier to get. Drug addiction is an disease where a person creates a dependence that affects the Central Nervous System and the brain functions, producing alterations in the behavior, emotion, judgements and perception; this is a problem that is occurring in todays society that is growing every day, growing little by little until it becomes something natural and part of the lifestyle. It is a scourge that increases with the passing of days in the lives of many people who take refuge in this addiction. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Drug Addiction Is A Major Problem" essay for you Create order The use of drugs corresponds to the desire to flee from the reality that the addict has, for them it is a momentary relief, since in those moments of rest they forget all problems, the individual succumbs to the consumption of drugs due to personal, family, sentimental or socioeconomic conflicts, by stress or by the suffering of psychological illnesses, stress, depression and other which are important factors that lead a person to use drugs. One of the problems is the illegal sale of drugs, which makes easy for anyone to get it. Drug use has increased in a huge way due to many causes. There is no specific cause why a person begins to use drugs. The risk factors that facilitate consumption are the following: curiosity to experiment; a natural and common characteristic of most adolescents, which must be educated so it becomes a source of maturity and prevents it from concentrating on risk situations. Also peer pressure, in which one of the requirements to be part of a group is to consume drugs and that is why a lot of people get into this problem. Friendships exert a pressure that facilitates the adoption of certain signs of identity (dress, music, etc.) but that can also lead to the beginning of drug use. The person wants to feel that they are part of a cool group and that they want to prove to the others that they can do whatever they are asked to do. In reality, may just dont know what to do with their life or feel an emptiness so they want to be part of something, and if they dont want to use drugs, they think they may be rejected. Also one of the reasons why people use drugs is for pleasure seeking; The use of drugs has always been linked to the desire to disconnect from the most oppressive demands of reality, in an attempt to fully enjoy leisure time. If in childhood and adolescence other forms of fun are not learned, drugs can take a big place. As well as inconsistent family control when family norms are excessively rigid, relaxed or variable, children and adolescents find it difficult to internalize clear patterns of b ehavior, so that their socialization outside the family is affected. Some young people today use drugs when they go out to parties, makes, also smoke marijuana; and sometimes they become habitual consumers. They consume methamphetamine and cocaine quite naturally. They intend to endure whole days of partying without going to bed, they get it thanks to the effects of popper, ecstasy or other drugs. Even minors know how to get drugs and go to parties; and the society in a certain way allows it. But what we really want to know is; why would a person want to get high? Why when they get to a party, the first thing that comes to mind is to use drugs and not just to find another way of getting fun with their friends or meeting new people? Why do they always take refuge in drugs as if it were their safe harbor? Is it because their daily life is very difficult?. Is it because they do not find another solution, because they believe that this is the only way they have to go in this life?. Is it because they do not realize how bad they can get by using drugs? A social factor of the use of drugs is that currently, there is more availability of legal and illegal drugs, which makes it easier to get and consume. Family factors are that people that come from smoking, drinking or addicts parents, are more likely to use drugs than people of parents who does no have any kind of addiction. A family that gives too much permission, where there is no discipline or control, where a person are subject to an authoritarian parents, or are overprotected, can also encourage the use of drugs. Individual factors: personal reasons can also impact in the decision of using drugs. Drugs can be seen as an escape to everyday problems; some people use it to compensate for loneliness, low self-esteem, emotional and psychological problems or stress. Even though drugs have always existed and will continue to exist, and this has become a social problem that is increasing as more and more people consume some type of drug, in greater quantities and at younger ages. There is a greater variety and greater ease to access them. Therefore we can say that each person will have their justification to consume, and the reason why they want to get high, this varies from person to person.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Proposed area of research: Female leadership and Strategic Management - Private primary schools in morocco. Indicative title of the research: Women as head of the Moroccan private education business: When it takes a woman to educate but a man to manage Aim and Focus of the study: The aim of this research is to combine Sociologic and Organisational management to examine the profitability of some strategic management decision making in the private primary education sector in morocco. In other words, the research will be exploring the sector from its micro and macro- environmental aspects, the way it works and generates profit, but from a humanitarian point of entry. The research will focus on the private primary education sector in Morocco -Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As an indicative note, there is to date no material Arabic - written on Business, Marketing and other business - related subject in the Arabic speaking country. Business related studies are still very young, uncharted. Material on or about the country is only found in dated, too often very approximate findings that do not take into account the socio-cultural environment that is seen as the most avant-gardists in the region. The woman is beneficiating from a great mar gin of freedom in every aspect with a westernised business approach. The recent global events related to the outburst of fundamentalist religious streams acted like a hidden break to the female position in the managerial roles in certain ways, but also challenged the society to keep into its advancement and quest for modernism. The enormous research gap that exists in this field in particular gives place to the possibility of studying the fact from unexplored angles. While the lack of research in this area works at first as a real handicap, it also opens the door to a multitude of approaches and a stronger built up study, where the researcher will have the opportunity to dig freely beneath the surface. The multiculturalism, multilingualism and the constant movement that the country is witnessing in its business environment make every prospect
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Is obesity a disease? Thirty tlve percent ot people believe that obesity is a disease, but I believe that It Is a life choice. The reason I believe that obesity Is a life choice Is because there are many ways to avoid obesity; getung plenty of exercise, eaung right, and there are surgeries that can be performed to counter obesity and be healthy. Thirty eight of Americans are obese, due to that percentage, most doctors dont consider being skinny healthy and believe that you should be close to overweight but not obese. The average weight for a teen girl that Is 5, 1 Is 100 pounds which is nderweight to doctors they believe that the average teen girl that is 5, 1 should be 125 pounds. In 1979 the average weight for a teen girl that is 5, 1 was 109 pounds and due to the increase of obesity and weight change that now would be considered underweight and you would be considered not healthy. BMI is used because, for most people, it correlates with their amount of body fat. An adult who has a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obeseÃ¢â¬ (CDC). Because the bmi calculation only uses weight and height, many people who donnot look excessively overweight may still be considered obese due to muscle weight, but reguardless whether one is on the borderline of being obese or if oneÃ¢â¬â¢s bmi surpasses 40, he or she has a disease according to some views. One may argue that obesity is a disease because, like any other disease, it can interfere with the body not functioning properly. An excess amount of fat tissues will cause the overproduction of bodily molecules and mediators which contribute to abnormal regulation of food consumption and energy levels (American Medical Association). As being a problem with genetics, Albert J. Stunkard, MD states that studies have proven that inheriting obesity is about the same as inheriting oneÃ¢â¬â¢s height and concluded that obesity is not from the lack of exercise and eating less, but is in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s DNA (Stunkard). Even though obesity is viewed as a disease itself, it can still contribute to other known diseases such as: diabetes, hypertension, and some cancers, which can lead to heart disease, heart failures, and strokes (George Bray, MD). In this case, calling obesity a disease may be appropriate because of the domino effect it has. Although there has been a rapid increase in obesity in the recent years, it has been stated that obesity was considered a disease as early as the 17th century (David B. Allison, PhD). The impairment of the body functioning normally, the decrease of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life expectancy, the genetic heritability of obesity, and risks to get diabetes, hypertension, and some cancers, are all reasons why some people view obesity as a disease. Opponents of this claim donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe these reasons are worthy enough of classifying obesity as a disease. From general knowledge, we all know diseases are contracted by infectious viruses and other factors and that diseases generally have certain distinct characteristics. For example, aids is a disease, cancer is a disease, and botulism to name a few. The only way to Ã¢â¬Å"contractÃ¢â¬ obesity is to over eat. For obese people, their realistic disease is that everything tastes good. Obesity can be compared to smoking and drinking. Smoking may cause lung cancer and drinking may cause alcoholism, but smoking or drinking in its self is not considered a disease. Obesity however is indeed a risk factor for Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ diseases like diabetes and heart disease. For those who claim to have become obese from another illness, in most cases, are prescribed medication to keep their weight gain to a minimum. It is simple science; the more you eat, the fatter you will become especially when you have a sedentary life style. For example, many people commute long distances to work and school, sitting in traffic for a long time. Once they reach their office or classroom, they sit some more. Lack of exercise will also contribute to obesity. More and more people are spending their time sitting behind computers and chatting with friends on the latest social network, playing video games, watching whoÃ¢â¬â¢s been eliminated from their favorite reality television, or trying to complete everything that has been assigned by their English 103 professor, instead of using that time to go on a jog or brisk walk. Obesity is simply a matter of personal responsibility and not an illness. Every individual can make the decision to live a healthy lifestyle. If obesity is a disease, then diet and exercise should be the cure. With all of the information presented as to obesity being a disease, I am still opposed that. I understand that it may be harder for people who are genetically prone to becoming overweight to stay fit, but I find it hard to believe that every single obese person has a disease or is blaming it due to genetics. From personal experience, I witnessed a four hundred pound friend lose one hundred pounds last year and is still losing weight. I believe it is a matter of staying active and eating right.
Friday, April 10, 2020
Does Herodotus Offer Adequate Explanations for Colonisation in the Greek Archaic Period Essay Example
Does Herodotus Offer Adequate Explanations for Colonisation in the Greek Archaic Period Essay Does Herodotus offer adequate explanations for Greek colonisation in the archaic period? Herodotus gives all ancient historians invaluable insights into colonisation in the archaic period, despite having his well known limitations. We must overall regard his work Ã¢â¬ËThe HistoriesÃ¢â¬â¢ as an equal to archaeological evidence and ThucydidesÃ¢â¬â¢ work when it comes to studying colonisation in this period. Before I begin this essay, however, I must first quickly define two crucial terms. The term Ã¢â¬ËcolonisationÃ¢â¬â¢ (as we mean it during the during the archaic period) has for some reason been debated at great length by ancient historians, who seem determined to remove it as far away from the imperial meaning of the word as possible. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t see why, as both have glaring similarities and only minute differences. They both involve one kind of people moving in significant numbers to a new place (where either a different kind of people or no people were present) and establishing their way of life in said location. The only real differences being the literal translation of the word in Greek meaning Ã¢â¬Ëhome away from homeÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëtrading placeÃ¢â¬â¢ and the imperial meaning of the word leaning more towards the subjugation of the local inhabitants rather than the replacement of them (which was more common in archaic Greece). The second term is Ã¢â¬ËArchaic PeriodÃ¢â¬â¢ which in this essay will be defined as the period from 800 to 478BC. We will write a custom essay sample on Does Herodotus Offer Adequate Explanations for Colonisation in the Greek Archaic Period specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Does Herodotus Offer Adequate Explanations for Colonisation in the Greek Archaic Period specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Does Herodotus Offer Adequate Explanations for Colonisation in the Greek Archaic Period specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer To examine in detail HerodotusÃ¢â¬â¢ explanations for colonisation during this period I will examine to what extent he informs us on: land-hunger, trading considerations, droughtand I will also comment on his references to the Delphic oracle. I have picked these areas to judge Herodotus on, because they are the most regularly agreed upon reasons for colonisation occurring and therefore his comments on these areas have the potential to be most informative to us, as A. Graham eloquently sums up with Ã¢â¬Ëthough a very large number of extant authors provide some piece of information relevant to the history of Greek colonisation only a few are of overriding influenceÃ¢â¬ ¦ their [Herodotus and Thucydides] importance lies in their relatively early date, although they belong to a period after the Archaic colonising movement, they are nearer to it than our other substantial sourcesÃ¢â¬â¢. It is for this paramount reason that HerodotusÃ¢â¬â¢ comments on these subjects are so crucial to our study of colonisation. In scrutinizing HerodotusÃ¢â¬â¢ comments in this field I will look some of the examples that he uses, namely: Chalkedon, Sigeion, Egypt, Olbia and of course Cyrene. So through looking at the four main reasons for colonisation and cross-referencing it with the examples stated I will fully evaluate whether or not Herodotus is an adequate source to look to regarding the archaic colonisation period. It must also be mentioned at this point that Ã¢â¬Ëpolitical factorsÃ¢â¬â¢ would have also been a strong factor to consider, however, would take up the word count fully all by itself, so will be left for a another time. LandÃ¢â¬âhunger refers to one of the push factors that are widely believed to have caused many Greeks to leave their original homes in search of more land and in particular, more fertile land. We see this especially in the case of mainland Greece and the Peloponnese where there were less fertile plains and more arid and mountainous terrain Although Herodotus never explicitly tells us that this was a major cause for colonisation, we can infer from some of his writing that this would have been a factor. Herodotus enlightens us to the existence of a colony on the coast of the black seathat Ã¢â¬Ëhave sanctuaries dedicated to the Greek gods and Ã¢â¬ ¦ whose language is a mixture of Scythian and GreekÃ¢â¬â¢. Now this alone does not specifically tell us that the Greeks moved to this area because it was particularly fertile or that their home region was lacking in enough land, but when you continue to read on and see that it was the Megarians who colonised Chalkedon and Byzantium (located either side of the Bosphorus) then one can easily see the extent to which a Peloponnesian city-state would go to find new lands. This is a weak argument on its own, however, twinned with some basic knowledge of Antiquity it grows in strength. For instance anyone with knowledge of mainland Greek states will know that the Megarians were indeed very restricted with regards to land. They were squashed between the Peloponnesian League members such as Corinth, to the south, and Attica (ruled by Athens), to the north and east. The fact that they set up at least three colonies: Megara Hyblaea, Chalkedon and Byzantium, clearly indicates land-hunger, just as their geography would suggest. On top of this, anyone with a basic knowledge of antiquity would also be aware of the huge agricultural resources available around the black sea, proved by AthensÃ¢â¬â¢ later dependency on grain imports from this region during the Peloponnesian wars. The way in which Herodotus describes Cyrene as having a Ã¢â¬Ëhole in the skyÃ¢â¬â¢ (i. e. it rains more making the ground more fertile) can also be taken as a heavy hint as to why Cyrene was set up. My point being, when reading Herodotus, sometimes he must be used in conjunction with elementary knowledge to support or disprove points. In this case he has supported the idea that land-hunger was an adequate explanation for Greek colonisation though not explicitly telling us. One has to admit though that over the course of the whole work, Herodotus does fail to fully support this factor. Unless you are a primitivist, trading advantages had to be a substantial pull factor for your city to advocate colonisation. I will develop this argument assuming that the Greeks were an enterprising race because this is the argument that will prove to be entirely accepted in due course. The finest example of Herodotus explaining colonisation, in regards to trading motives, is his account of the settlement set up at the mouth of the River Nile called Naukratis. He declares Ã¢â¬ËNaukratis was the only trading-station and there was no other in EgyptÃ¢â¬â¢ and goes on remark on the religious temples set up in honour of Zeus, Hera and Apollo naming Aeginetans, Samians and Milesians all present in the city. This was clearly a settlement set up with the aim of extending trade relations with the Egyptians for the benefit of Greeks. In a separate example though, one can again use basic knowledge of Hellenes in antiquity (the basic knowledge being that the Bosphorus was extremely important to trade even in archaic times) combined with HerodotusÃ¢â¬â¢ passage on Chalkedon to see that control of the Bosphorus was important enough to trade that colonies were set up here on numerous occasions. Sigeion, just south of the Bosphorus and situated on the mouth of the river Strymon was (as Herodotus informs us) fought over furiously by Athens and Mytilene, again signifying the importance of trade to the foundation of colonies in the archaic period. So Herodotus then giving us comprehensive proof of trade being an adequate factor in the establishment of colonies in the archaic period. Dillon points to drought as one of the factors that lead directly to colonisation. No better example of this, in ancient literature, exists than the account of CyreneÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation. For the next seven years, however, no rain fell on Thera, and all their trees, with a single exception, withered. Ã¢â¬â¢ Now, following this short passage, we again encounter a common limitation of Herodotus, Ã¢â¬ËThe islanders consulted the oracle, and the Pythia reminding them that they were supposed to colonise LibyaÃ¢â¬â¢; that is his continuous permeation of oracles into most of his work. This is not to say that we can disregard ancient historiansÃ¢â¬â¢ referenceÃ¢â¬â¢s to all oracleÃ¢â¬â¢s all the time, but it is of my own opinion that we take much of HerodotusÃ¢â¬â¢ oracular reports with a pinch of salt. So although Herodotus may have been reported a tale of curses and prophecies regarding TheraÃ¢â¬â¢s drought, I would take his account and remedy a notion that what was most likely to have occurred was: that the Therans had some bad luck with the weather for a indeterminate period of time and as a result could not sustain the population they includedÃ¢â¬ ¦ so, decided to relieve pressure on the city by sending a portion of its population to a land where they could survive (or perhaps even sustain the original colony? . To clarify my earlier Ã¢â¬Ëpinch of saltÃ¢â¬â¢ phrase it moves me to use the words of M. Giangiulio expressing the idea that Ã¢â¬Ëcultural memory does not Ã¢â¬ËreflectÃ¢â¬â¢ historical reality, even if it expresses a form of historical self-awarenessÃ¢â¬â¢. This is the sense in which I believe we should use Herodotus, using our modern sense of hindsight and sensibility to understand Ã¢â¬Ëhistorical realityÃ¢â¬â¢ more accurately. For further detail s on Ã¢â¬Ëintentional historyÃ¢â¬â¢ see footnote. This is the most blatant example I have touched on so far of Herodotus supporting one of the five stated reasons for colonisation and therefore yet again going some way to adequately explaining Greek colonisation in the archaic period. The Delphic Oracle is central to the explaining of why many colonies are set up. Maurizio Giangiulio supports this line of argument by telling us Ã¢â¬ËThe decisive role played by the Delphic oracle is very strongly emphasized, through various narrative devicesÃ¢â¬â¢ in this case Herodotus: Ã¢â¬Ëthe oracle declared that he would found a community in LibyaÃ¢â¬â¢. It is ion this way that Herodotus is able to properly shed light on a crucial part of explaining the colonising process, making evident that it was foolhardy to go on an expedition without the expressed will of the gods Ã¢â¬Ëthe importance attached to the godÃ¢â¬â¢s will is an integral part of a representational strategy [of a colony]Ã¢â¬â¢ states Giangiulio, extending this with Ã¢â¬ËCyrene represent themselves- it would seem Ã¢â¬âas a polies which stood high in ApolloÃ¢â¬â¢s favourÃ¢â¬â¢. To conclude, there is no denying that Herodotus has his flaws in providing explanations for Greek colonisation. I am not pushing the argument that Herodotus is an infallible source on every case study he mentions either. What must be clear though after reading this essay is that Herodotus can be used with great effectiveness to inform us on the explanations of Greek colonisation. Simple guidelines can be fitted to reading his work that allow one to see past what modern minds would usually consider fantasy, but which can really help reveal the truth in many of the cases he does use. He supports three of the four reasons very strongly, and even if he does fall short in regards to land-hunger he more than makes up for it by placing huge emphasis on the importance of oracles and trading which must be considered the principal reason for explaining in the archaic period. Words: 1,961  Dillon, Ancient Greece, 2000, Routledge, pp. 1 I have not looked at political consideration only due to my word count being limited to 2000, not through sloth or lack of interest. 2] Boardman, 1982, pp. 85 (Cambridge Ancient History)  Herodotus, 4. 108.  Herodotus, 4. 144  Herodotus, 4. 159  Herodotus, 2. 152-154, 178-181  Herodotus, 4. 144  5. 94-95  4. 151  4. 151  M. Giangiulio, Constructing the past: colonial traditions and the writing of history Ã¢â¬Ëthe case of CyreneÃ¢â¬â¢, in N. Luraghi The HistorianÃ¢â¬â¢s Craft in the age of Herodotus, 2001, pp. 120  H. Gehrke, Mythos, Geschicte, Politik-antik und modern, 1994 pp. 239-64  M. Giangiulio, Constructing the past: colonial traditions and the writing of history Ã¢â¬Ëthe case of CyreneÃ¢â¬â¢, in N. Luraghi The HistorianÃ¢â¬â¢s Craft in the age of Herodotus, 2001, pp. 117  4. 150  M. Giangiulio, Constructing the past: colonial traditions and the writing of history Ã¢â¬Ëthe case of CyreneÃ¢â¬â¢, in N. Luraghi The HistorianÃ¢â¬â¢s Craft in the age of Herodotus, 2001, pp. 118
Monday, March 9, 2020
Brownfields Essays Brownfields Essay Brownfields Essay Brownfields are abandoned, idled or under-used and industrial commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by environmental contamination. These areas are scattered all through out the nation and are more numerous in areas that are industrial centers. The redevelopment of brownfields are supported by all agencies of the government, the Department of Transportation made a policy that would enable the availability of funds for the redevelopment of brownfields, the DOT believed that brownfield redevelopment with transportation programs can bring new jobs, services and amenities to a neighborhood, reduce vehicle miles of travel, reduce time spent in congestion and increase the viability of transit, walking and biking. Brownfields and transportation are connected in ways that create opportunities to accomplish transportation, economic, community and environmental goals. Transportation facilities play a major role in commerce and industry, in the past industrial plants were always located near transportation facilities. However, transportation and economic changes have shifted number industrial operations away from centers of transportation. As the case maybe, transportation is key to brownfield redevelopment, as it gives access to people and goods, this would include fixing existing highways, waterways and public transportation and the other transportation related use of the land like intermodal terminals and bus barns. The local government together with the community are interested in the redevelopment of brownfields as an existing brownfield would lower property values, stifles local investment and be an environmental threat, in the same way the local government see redevelopment as bringing in jobs, increase in taxes and make use of taxpayerÃ¢â¬â¢s investment in infrastructure. Thus, the federal, state and local government coordinates to achieve these goals through the Transportation Improvement Program. To the communities, re-using brownfields through transportation investments would later on bring transportation benefits. The redevelopment of brownfields would also improve the environment by lessening or eradicating contamination in these sites. As well as reviving measures to control the quality of water and air and the conservation of open spaces. The protection of open spaces reduces conversion of land to impervious surfaces which is very critical in the maintenance of watershed health. The Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) has a projected budget of $198 billion for transportation spending for 1998 to 2003. The act supports brownfield redevelopment through a number of funding programs. For new highways, roads or bridge construction on brownfields, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s the National Highway System, Surface Transportation Program, Bridges, Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program and the Transportation Enhancements. For the construction of new transit lines or station, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s the Transit Capital Investment Grants and Loans, the Urbanized and Non-urbanized Area Formula Grant Program. The improvement of railroads in brownfields can be funded through the Rail Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing Program. In improving pedestrian and/or bicycle access can be channeled through the National Highway System and the Transportation Enhancements. For recreational trails a funding from Recreational Trails is available and innovative sust ainability projects can be pursued through grants from the Transportation and Community and System Preservation Pilot Program. In order to receive TEA-21 funds to redevelop a brownfield site, a Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) state must have a transportation clause in the project and should be included in the Long-Range Transportation Plan and its Transportation Improvement Program. In general almost all funds allocated under the TEA-21 are disbursed through the standard planning and TIP process. The MPO has the obligation to coordinate with air quality planning and encourage public involvement as required by federal law. The Long-Range Transportation plans are created to project a 20 year transportation development program. The project however needs to satisfy the following criteria to be included in the LRT, the project must help advance state or regional transportation objectives, it should be able to provide information about the financial resources of the project and the impact on air quality of the project should not violate National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Evaluating a brownfield redev elopment project proposal requires reviewing financial, environmental, social and legal considerations of the project. Another means of acquiring federal funding is for the organization or state to apply directly to the DOT for grants and loans provided under the TEA-21, wherein Transportation and Community and System Preservation Pilot grants and the Rail Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing loans are the most relevant to brownfield projects. The TCSP grants were given to innovative transportation projects which must meet the goals of TCSP which includes reducing the impacts of transportation on the environment, reducing the need for costly future public infrastructure investments, to ensure efficient access to jobs, services and centers of trade and lastly examining private sector development patterns and investments that support TCSP goals. In the TCSP program, public entities are eligible to get finds form the federal government without a state or regional MPO intermediary. Municipal governments, MPOÃ¢â¬â¢s, states agencies, school boards, air and park districts and public transit agencies are eligible to apply for the TCSP loan. The Rail Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing Program give out loans and loan guarantees for acquiring, improving, developing or rehabilitating intermodal or rail equipment facilities, this is available to local governments, and government sponsored authorities, corporations, railroads and joint ventures with at least one railroad. In conclusion it was reported that transportations funds can be used to clean up environmental contamination on brownfields if it is a part of the transportation project. It can also be sued to stimulate private sector revitalization of brownfields, as well as provide an opportunity for the collaboration of stakeholders and meeting public goals. Funding is available for such projects but the application process takes a lengthy route and that limited funding is available directly form federal government. There have been a number of projects that involved redeveloping brownfields which ranged from the construction of roads, a new bridge, a parkway and an intermodal terminal. In Portland, Oregon a new road was built to improve access to deepwater port and cleaned up a 2,800-acre Rivergate Industrial District, it also increased the value of land in the industrial area and initiated the expansion of manufacturing and shipping operations. Portland encapsulated the contaminated soils at a former pesticide-formulating plant with new road surface. In Lawrence, Massachusetts a new bridge was constructed to improve transportation access and infrastructure, it supported economic development, it improved pedestrian traffic as well as remediation of environmental contamination.Ã The project not only will clean a downtown brownfield but also create a new park and pedestrian walkway. A parkway in Buffalo, New York linked the industrial areas of Buffalo and the regional road network which then im proved transportation and develop under-used areas which are also brownfields. The construction of the parkway also satisfied American AxleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs for access and re-engineering obsolete infrastructure. Since the project was privately funded it had significant support form federal and state governments. An intermodal terminal in Salt Lake City, Utah was funded by congress with a $40 million budget as part of the brownfield redevelopment. When the Interstate 15 was redesigned it opened an opportunity to develop an old rail yard to an intermodal hub. The city will also be participating in the Utah Voluntary Cleanup Program to serves as a protection form environmental contamination. These examples reiterate that developing brownfields are beneficial to the community although it entails a complex weaving of government and community efforts as well as the liability to ascertain that contamination can be eradicated or managed.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Communication and Personality Paper - Essay Example Till this day, I have not been able to understand the psyche of the two of them. It happened when I advertised my house for sale. Mr. X approached me with Mr. Y. I welcomed the two and offered them to come into my drawing room. I was wearing a grin on my face and was treating them with utmost respect. I pulled chairs for them, turned on the AC as they had been in the sweltering heat of the sun for quite some time and needed refreshment. Both of my guests were in very pleasant mood. They had dressed up a bit too formally for the level of formality the occasion required. I was in casual dress in my home, wearing a T shirt over the pajamas. It was Sunday and people in general would normally be in bed that early in the morning. I had just been out of the bed. The two of them had approached me too early in the morning, though I did not mind at all. I asked them what would they take Ã¢â¬â tea or coffee. They asked for coffee. I went inside and asked my wife, Martha to make three cups of coffee. I needed to give them company both in person and in coffee, so I went back towards the drawing room. As I approached them and we were settled. Mr. X began the conversation. Mr. X: So Mr. A, we are interested in purchasing your home that you have recently advertised. Me: Sure. (Mr. Y remained silent all this while and for most part of the communication till the end). Mr. X: Your home is good but its price is too high. We need to bargain. Me: Maybe. What do you want to pay? (Meanwhile the coffee with muffins appeared on the table. I helped them to the coffee and muffins.) Mr. X: I want to buy this house for $50,000. Me: Sorry, that is not even half the demanded price. (Mr. X and Mr. Y exchanged looks. By the time, they had finished their cups of coffee and muffins). Mr. X: But look at your house! It is the cheapest in the whole town. (I was shocked by this sudden change of attitude. My house was certainly not the cheapest one around, and that guy was trying to disdain me and my property unnecessarily.) Me: I am extremely sorry but unfortunately, the price can not be bargained upon. This is the amount I require, and will keep the property with me unless this amount has been paid by a party. I respect your concerns for this house but I have no option to think otherwise. (That was the first time Mr. Y spoke). Mr. Y: If you do not agree to sell your house to us at our desired price, we shall spread the rumor that your houseÃ¢â¬â¢s foundations are shaken and that it can fall into pieces anytime. (My suspicion was confirmed. They were two blackmailers. Otherwise, there was no point dressing up like that or coming over to my house that early in the morning, or saying things they did regarding my house if they were sincere and really wanting to buy it.). I told the two to leave before immediately and do whatever they think they can. In any communication, visual appearance of the participants casts an important impression upon others. Ã¢â¬Å"Reduced to its ess ence, negotiation is a form of interpersonal communication. Communication processes, both verbal and nonverbal, are critical to achieving negotiation goals and to resolving conflictsÃ¢â¬ (Barry, Lewicki, Saunders, 2006). Mr. X and Mr. Y were wearing dress pant and coat in the sweltering heat of May and that too very early in the morning. Perhaps, with the sober expression and formal dressing, they wanted to convey that they were to be taken seriously. However, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢